2017-2018 Undergraduate Academic Catalogue 
    
    Nov 19, 2018  
2017-2018 Undergraduate Academic Catalogue [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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HS 304 - Reformation Europe

(3.00 cr.)

Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course. In 1517, Europe erupted into religious chaos when an unknown Augustinian professor of theology, Martin Luther, posted his Ninety-five Theses on the door of the Church of Wittenberg.  Other reformers soon followed – Ulrich Zwingli, John Calvin, Thomas Müntzer, Menno Simons, and Henry VIII.  By 1550, more than half of Europe was Protestant or leaning towards conversion, but Protestantism could not unify.  Catholicism was slow to respond, but by the middle of the sixteenth century Ignatius Loyola had founded the Society of Jesus and the Council of Trent had begun to meet.  What followed, called the Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation, began to regain its religious dominance.  But it had come at a cost: vehemence from the altars had given way to violence on the battlefield.  France and the Low Countries were embroiled in long wars between Catholic and Protestant armies. In 1618, the Holy Roman Empire would follow with the Thirty Years War, the most bloody conflict ever fought on European soil. IM



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