2019-2020 Undergraduate Academic Catalogue 
    
    Jan 20, 2022  
2019-2020 Undergraduate Academic Catalogue [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

Course Descriptions


 

History

  
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    HS 313 - History of Christmas

    (3.00 cr.)

    Is Christmas the commemoration of Jesus' birth? Or is it a pagan winter festival hiding behind a thin but deceptive veil of Christian images and ideas? Students will discover that the holiday is both of these things and a good deal more to boot. Students examine the origins and many transformations of the holiday and how the holiday has both reflected and helped determine the course of history. Topics include the Christmas tree, gift giving, the suppression of Christmas, the Nativity accounts, pagan precedents and, of course, Santa. Same course as CL 313 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IC
  
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    HS 314 - History of the Roman Empire

    (3.00 cr.)

    A survey of imperial history from the Principate of Augustus to the Reign of Constantine focusing on the development of Roman culture as seen through the surviving ancient sources, including inscriptions, historians, monuments, and coins. Same course as CL 314 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: II/IM
  
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    HS 315 - The French Revolution and Napoleon

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the many causes of revolutionary activity in France at the end of the eighteenth century. This course focuses on the aspirations of urban elites as well as the peasants in the provinces in order to study the vision of a more representative government. It also covers the role of the Committee of Public Safety and the use of violent repression during the Terror as a preamble to the work of Napoleon Bonaparte as both reformer and general.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT
  
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    HS 318 - Creation of Modern Germany: 1770-1992

    (3.00 cr.)

    Traces the history of central Europe from the enlightenment to recent reunification. The rise of Prussia, the emergence of Bismarck, and the creation of Germany in 1871 are seen as the crucial foundations of the modern German state and as the prelude to the devastation of the two world wars. Examines the social and cultural issues resulting from Germany's own particular political development. Also examines the concept of "Germanness" in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and how it was altered by both "Nazification" and "De-Nazification."

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT
  
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    HS 319 - Nazi Germany and the Holocaust

    (3.00 cr.)

     

    Students explore historical frameworks including nationalism and anti-Semitism in Europe, World War I's impact on German economics and politics, and Hitler's rise to power. The structure and mechanics of the Third Reich as a racial state and the dynamics of the persecution of European Jews and other marginalized groups are examined, as are the connections between inclusion and exclusion in Nazi society. The personal experience of the Holocaust from the perspective of perpetrator, victim, and bystander are explored. Students visit the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IPJ

  
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    HS 320 - Hellenistic History

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of the Greek world from the death of Socrates (399 B.C.) to the Roman conquest (146 B.C.). Covers the fourth century struggle for supremacy of Greece, Alexander the Great, the waning of the city-state and the growth of federal government and monarchy, and the nature of and reasons for the Roman conquest of Greece. Emphasizes the cultural, social, artistic, and intellectual developments of the period: the status of women, Hellenistic philosophy and technology, the class struggle, the evolution of Greek art and literature, athletics, private life, Greek religion, and ancient warfare. Same course as CL 320 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 322 - Gladiators and Roman Spectacles

    (3.00 cr.)

    An examination of ancient Rome's spectacles, including gladiatorial combat, chariot racing, animal fights and exhibitions, and mock battles. The course explores the intersection of power, violence, entertainment, class, and sex in Roman spectacles. Same course as CL 322 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: II
  
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    HS 324 - Warfare in the Eastern Mediterranean from Troy to Iraq

    (3.00 cr.)

    From the siege of Troy – which has proven real, although embellished by legend – to the current Iraqi and Syrian conflicts, the Eastern Mediterranean has rarely been at peace. The Trojans/Wilusians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Muslims, Crusaders, Fatamid Egyptians, Mongols, Europeans, Turks – Seljuks and Ottomans – Iranians, Iraqis, British, French, Germans, Americans, and many others have fought in and over what is actually a very small area of land – the world's battlefield, it could be called. That is the historical record; what is less well understood, or studied, is why there has been so much warfare, more than any other region on earth.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT
  
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    HS 325 - Europe Since 1945 through Film

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines how Europeans have seen themselves since the end of World War II. A series of feature movies illustrate important developments and events. These include the destruction and poverty caused by the war; the "economic miracle" of European reconstruction; existentialism and surrealism; the revolts of Europe's overseas colonies; domestic terrorism; the sexual revolution; European integration; violence between communities in Ireland and the Balkans; and the problems of affluence. Besides learning about these topics, students gain experience in viewing and interpreting films.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IF
  
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    HS 326 - The Golden Age of Athens

    (3.00 cr.)

    An examination of what has been called Athens' golden age focusing on the political and cultural factors which made the fifth century unique. Subjects include the creation and workings of Athenian democracy, the victories of the Persian wars, the Greek Enlightenment, Pericles' rule of the best citizen, demagoguery and empire, the Peloponnesian War, and the "end" of Athens symbolized by the execution of Socrates. Same course as CL 326 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 327 - Volcanoes, Fire, and Flood: Disasters of Ancient Rome

    (3.00 cr.)

    An examination of ancient Rome's greatest disasters: the destruction of Pompeii, the Great Fire of Rome, floods, and plagues. Students investigate the causes of these events; the Romans' efforts to navigate and make sense of them; and the transformations they brought to the ancients' environment, behavior, and thought. Same course as CL 327 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IFS
  
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    HS 328 - Soldiers, Land, and Population Transferrals

    (3.00 cr.)

    Focuses on three topics regarding the Roman army: (a) the army as a social institution; (b) the problem of land ownership and distribution; and (c) the use of population transferrals as an instrument for social engineering. Students explore these topics in order to gain new insight into the accomplishments and failures of individuals as diverse as Pompeius Magnus, Augustus, and Theodosius I. Since history is never without relevance to the present, this seminar also provides students with new ideas and instruments for dealing with contemporary debates about such disputed issues as family farms and immigration. Same course as CL 328 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 329 - Women in Greece and Rome

    (3.00 cr.)

    An examination of the lives of and attitudes toward women in ancient Greece and Rome. Classic texts of ancient literature are read, masterpieces of art are viewed, and the sociology of ancient women is probed. Topics include the family; prostitution; women of the imperial family; Cleopatra; health, child bearing, and birth control; the source and psychology of Greek misogyny; jet setters and women's liberation under the early Roman Empire; women and work; women in myth; women in early Christianity; the legacy of classical civilization for modern women. Same course as CL 329 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IG/II
  
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    HS 331 - Ideas in Conflict: European Thought Since the Eighteenth Century

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the interaction of historically important ideas (and why we conceive them to be so) with the social milieu from which they arose and which, in turn, they influenced. It thus places in historical context "great ideas" and people who developed them.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 332 - The Enlightenment in Europe

    (3.00 cr.)

    The eighteenth century is often described as the Age of Reason, for the Enlightenment institutionalized the methodology of critical analysis in all areas of human thought and action. Yet, the eighteenth century is both more and less than this triumph of reason implies, for any such monolithic interpretation belies the complex interrelationships and compromises on issues such as monarchical power, political equality, social reorganization, and the seductive power of science to transform the world of men and thereby liberate them. But as the Marquis de Sade suggests, liberation for what and for whom?

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT
  
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    HS 333 - The Second World War

    (3.00 cr.)

    The Second World War, 1939-1945, was a colossal disaster that resulted in the premature death of perhaps a hundred million people. At the same time, the Allied victory prevented the spread of brutal, dictatorial regimes in Germany, Italy, and Japan. Students examine the origins of the war and particularly, military strategy and combat in both European and Asian theatres of war. Students confront historical controversies over appeasement, the Holocaust, and the decision to drop the atomic bomb. The course also deals with memorials to the war and its combatants.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT
  
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    HS 334 - Roman Private Life

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of family and social life in Ancient Rome which focuses on how environment and custom determine one another. Topics include women, crime, racism, pollution, class structure, private religion and magic, Christianity, blood sports, medicine, travel, theater, and death. Same course as CL 334 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: II
  
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    HS 335 - History of the Crusades

    (3.00 cr.)

    The international conflict known as The Crusades began as a Western European expedition to assist the Byzantine Empire to defend its borders against Middle Eastern Islamic enemies. However, instead of simply providing that small defensive force, two armies assembled, one of peasants and one of soldiers. Ultimately, the soldiers would achieve their goals: capturing Jerusalem, reclaiming the Holy Land, and establishing a number of crusader kingdoms. Their expedition would also set the stage for centuries of warfare between those crusaders (and their descendants) and forces, largely Islamic, which also held claim to the Holy Land. Students study the early history of the Crusades, from both the Christian and non-Christian view, as well as their effect on the early modern and modern history of the world.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IM
  
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    HS 337 - The Multicultural Roman Empire

    (3.00 cr.)

    In conquering and attempting to unify lands as diverse as Egypt, Iran, Britain, and Algeria, the Romans undertook one of the greatest social and political experiments in the history of the world. They assimilated some of the peoples they conquered, but the vanquished, in turn, assimilated their Roman conquerors-it is no accident that one third century emperor was named Philip the Arab. This course examines the strategies by which the Romans attempted to hold together their vast, multicultural empire, and the strategies by which many of their subjects preserved and even promulgated their cultures. Be prepared for clash and compromise, oppression and respect, culture and race, and, of course, some very astonishing customs. Same course as CL 337 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: II
  
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    HS 338 - Magic, Science, and Religion: Cultural History of the Scientific Revolution

    (3.00 cr.)

    Between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries, the cultural framework of European society was fundamentally altered from one in which magic permeated both religious beliefs and scientific inquiries, to one in which the scientific outlook dominated all intellectual pursuits. Focuses on the social, political, and intellectual changes which facilitated such a radical shift in the European world view. Concentrates on the rise and decline of the witch craze, the scientific revolution, the growth of positivism, and recent attempts to deal with relativity in mathematics and physics.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 339 - The Fall of Two Empires: Rome and Byzantium

    (3.00 cr.)

    The Roman and Byzantine Empires each lasted a thousand years, yet both fell. How? This course examines the reasons, internal and external, that brought an end to both empires; how they declined; and how they finally dissolved. It investigates how the political instability brought about by increasingly weak absolutist governments; the inabilities of their armies and navies to adapt to changes brought about by technological innovations and economic restraints; and the invasions of powerful outside cultural, religious, and military forces played roles in destroying two the greatest states in history.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IM
  
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    HS 343 - American Environmental History

    (3.00 cr.)

    Explores the changing relationship between people and the natural world from the colonial period to the present in the region that became the United States. The physical environment shaped the development of American culture even as different groups of Americans transformed that environment. Topics include Native American ideas about the natural world, European transformations of the environment, the rise of capitalism and its environmental consequences, water the West, the development of an environmental movement, and current debates about the natural world and our place in it.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IES/IU
  
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    HS 344 - American Women's History

    (3.00 cr.)

    Surveys the history of American women and their relations with men from settlement to modern times. Two parallel questions run through the semester: How did gender differences mold the private worlds of women and men? How did gender affect the public roles of women and men? The issues are examined through four chronological periods: 1607-1790, 1790-1880, 1880-1945, and 1945-1990s. Explores the wide diversity of experiences according to race, class, ethnicity, and region within each period.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IG/IU
  
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    HS 345 - The Peoples of Early America

    (3.00 cr.)

    Explores the peoples and cultures of early America (1550-1775). Examines how encounters, conflicts, and compromises between Europeans, Africans, and Native Americans shaped the development of colonial society.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring/Summer
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IU
  
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    HS 346 - Revolutionary America

    (3.00 cr.)

    The social, economic, and political causes and consequences of the American Revolution are explored. The course is divided into three parts. The first investigates the events leading up to the Declaration of Independence. The second analyzes the social experience of war for different groups in American society and examines the new governments established at both the state and national levels. The third traces the transformations wrought (and not wrought) by the Revolution in American society and politics. Traditional lectures are occasionally given, but the bulk of class time is spent discussing the readings and documents as well as the ideas and arguments in them.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IU
  
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    HS 347 - Our Rights: A History of Civil and Human Rights Law in America

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the legal history of civil and human rights in America, from the colonial period through the present. Students explore the social, economic, and political forces that influenced significant cases such as Brown v. Board of Education and Roe v. Wade, and analyze how decisions in those cases shaped subsequent legal and social discourse. Students interpret Supreme Court opinions, identify recurring tensions in American legal history, and analyze these tensions in various aspects of present day civil and human rights law controversies.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IPJ
  
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    HS 348 - The Civil War and Reconstruction

    (3.00 cr.)

    This course is divided into three parts. The first asks what forces led to the American Civil War. The second examines various aspects of life during the war years. And the final part considers how the nation "reconstructed" itself in the postwar years. Students should recognize that relatively little time is devoted to military history.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IU
  
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    HS 349 - Baltimore: Its History and Architecture

    (3.00 cr.)

    An examination of the history of Baltimore since its foundation in 1727: its growth as a center of trade and industry, its tumultuous nineteenth-century politics, and especially its industrial decline and unexpected revival in the twentieth century. The city's historic buildings and neighborhoods are the principal focus of the course, and students are encouraged to leave campus to study them. Novels and feature films about Baltimore are also used to study the city's history. Same course as AH 349 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IU
  
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    HS 350 - World War II in America

    (3.00 cr.)

    The roots of contemporary American society took hold during the turbulent years of World War II. Examines the images of America and its enemies in popular culture, issues of race at home and abroad, changing experiences for workers and women, and the transformation of the economy, government, and foreign policy of the United States.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring/Summer
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IU
  
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    HS 351 - American Urban Culture: A Tale of Four Cities

    (3.00 cr.)

    Students explore the growth of cultural institutions in four American cities-Baltimore, Boston, New York, and Philadelphia-in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. For much of the time under consideration, the elite and the citizenry in each of these cities competed to establish exemplary cultural institutions that would be emulated-or envied-by other cities. Early urban planning, religious edifices, monuments, parks, museums and libraries, and department stores are among the topics considered. Same course as AH 351 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IU
  
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    HS 352 - America Since 1945: The Cold War Years

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines two vital threads in post-World War II American history: our evolving international role and the rapidly changing society at home. At one level, it tries to make sense of a bewildering series of important events, including: the Cold War, McCarthyism, the Civil Rights Movement, the War on Poverty, the Vietnam War, the Peace Movement, the sixties counterculture, feminism, Watergate, and supply-side economics. At another level, it asks how these critical events-and broader demographic trends such as the baby boom and suburbanization-touched everyday Americans. How did life for the "person on the street" change during this tumultuous period?

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring/Summer
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IU
  
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    HS 356 - American Art: Art for a Democracy

    (3.00 cr.)

    Although American artists looked to European models for their inspiration, their art consistently reflected the complexities of American culture. In America, English aristocratic portraits were transformed into Puritan celebrations of hard-earned and therefore, well-deserved wealth; American architects responded to the practical demands of climate and materials at hand; painters of American life glorified the wilderness even as it was disappearing; the democratic process was both glorified and satirized. Examines the American response to European art as it was assimilated and transformed by American artists from the seventeenth century to the Great Depression. Same course as AH 318 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IU
  
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    HS 358 - African American History through the Civil War

    (3.00 cr.)

    Surveys the history of African Americans from the African Atlantic Diaspora to the end of the Civil War. Critical topics discussed include place, identity, memory, and the myriad ways in which African Americans created a sense of community. The course canvases the national landscape to see African Americans in states of freedom and enslavement, in the North and in the South, in cities and on plantations, in the "big house" and "in the field," and as skilled artisans and unskilled laborers. At all times students are poised to consider the degree to which African Americans possessed "agency" and how they used it to construct strategies of survival.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IAF/IU
  
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    HS 359 - African American History through Film

    (3.00 cr.)

    Explores major themes in African American history through the medium of film, supplemented by critical readings and primary sources. Students are introduced to significant developments, pivotal questions, and notable individuals who have contributed to the shape of the nation's history, society, and diverse culture. Representations of history and ideological content are examined, as well as the artistic techniques employed in historical films.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IAF/IF/IU
  
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    HS 360 - African American History Since Emancipation

    (3.00 cr.)

    The second half of the African American history survey introducing the major themes, events, people, and activities of African Americans in America from the Emancipation Proclamation (1863) to the present. Special attention is given to Reconstruction and the rise of Jim Crow; the Great Migration north and west; the evolution of African American leadership and political organizations; the Harlem Renaissance; the Black Power movement and the struggle for civil rights into the twenty-first century; and the black military experiences. As an interdisciplinary course, it lays a foundation for additional study of the centrality of African Americans in American history or any related discipline. In a given semester, this course may be structured topically with more emphasis on law, music, politics, gender or regionalism.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IAF/IU
  
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    HS 363 - A Century of Diplomacy: United States Foreign Policy Since 1890

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of modern American foreign policy. Topics include imperial expansion in the 1890s, World Wars I and II, the Cold War, Korea, Vietnam, interventions in Central America, and the rise of a new international order. Covers: how American culture and politics influence foreign policy decisions and why the United States seeks peace in Europe, dominates Central America, and commits blunders in Asia.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IU
  
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    HS 366 - The Civil Rights Era

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the black struggle for equality in America from disfranchisement in the 1890s through the turbulent 1960s and 1970s. Emphasizes the institutional and cultural barriers to racial equality in both North and South, and the organized means by which African Americans and white sympathizers challenged them.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IAF/IU
  
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    HS 367 - Black Women in the Atlantic World

    (3.00 cr.)

    Black women have a rich history worth exploring, and this analysis highlights their activities and contributions within the family, the workforce, and the black community. Historical themes address black women's roles in areas like religion, education, and politics and in reform movements like abolition, women's rights, civil rights, women's liberation, and abortion rights. Examines black women's organizations like the Council of Negro Women and the Women's Political Council, as well as the achievements of such notable women as Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, Mary McLedd Bethune, Ida Wells- Barnett, Rosa Parks, and Barbara Jordan.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IAF/IG/IU
  
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    HS 368 - The Atlantic World: Readings, Approaches, and Explorations

    (3.00 cr.)

    Introduces, surveys, and interrogates the concept of the Atlantic World commonly used today in the study of American history and culture and in global studies. The movement and intersection of peoples, ideas, economies, and cultures are considered. Territories, borders, and regions that have contributed to the construction of the Atlantic World paradigm are also studied.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IL/IU
  
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    HS 370 - The Jesuits in Asia Since 1542

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the history of the Society of Jesus in its four main Asian provinces prior to the Society's suppression and since its reemergence to the present day. Provides background concerning the origins of this religious group in Europe and its spread worldwide.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IA/IC
  
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    HS 371 - East Asia in the Modern World

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of the four countries that make up the East Asian cultural sphere (China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam), from roughly the mid-eighteenth century-when traditional cultures and civilizations were in full play-to the present-when all East Asian countries except North Korea have experienced the world's fastest growing economies.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IA
  
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    HS 372 - The Vietnam War through Film and Literature

    (3.00 cr.)

    Documentary and feature film, autobiography, oral history, documents, and works of literature are used to probe the following themes: the origins, course, and historical meaning of the war; the antiwar movement and the home front; the clash of cultural values between East Asia and the West; and ethical and psychological issues raised by the experience of war.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IA/IF/IPJ/IU
  
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    HS 373 - Contesting Empire: Nationalism and Decolonization in the Afro-Atlantic World

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the various ways Black and African thinkers and activists imagined their futures at the end of World War II, and what they did to realize these visions. Students consider the influence of several intellectual and cultural movements, as well as the key events that sparked a broad, collective call for the end of empire in the middle of the twentieth century. Students end the course by considering how the dreams and opportunities of decolonization either narrowed or closed, and why in the decades that followed the exuberant 1960s. Closed to students who have taken HS 357.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT
  
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    HS 374 - East Asia on Film

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of crucial aspects of the twentieth-century history and culture of China and Japan through film. In addition to examining how some major historical events and episodes are treated, the course focuses especially on the complex relationship between modern China and tradition and on the roles of context and culture in shaping human history.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring/Summer
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IA/IF
  
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    HS 375 - Indian History, Culture, and Religion through Film

    (3.00 cr.)

    Cinema is a powerful medium for describing the history and culture of a people. Given its antiquity and varied cultural and religious life, India can be well understood through popular films made in its many distinct languages, particularly Hindi, Telugu, and Tamil. Times, people, and traditions come alive and lead to a deep involvement of the viewer with issues that could not have come to the fore except through the medium of film. This course covers films made in India and on India over the last hundred years.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IA/IF
  
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    HS 376 - Memories of Nagasaki and Hiroshima

    (3.00 cr.)

    Presents a history of the memories--personal and collective, local and national--of the atomic bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima in August 1945. By looking at primary and secondary literature, art, and film, the course places the experiences of the survivors at the center of an exploration of the historical, cultural, and political contexts of postwar Japan that shaped the memories and narratives of the bombings.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IA
  
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    HS 377 - History of Modern China

    (3.00 cr.)

    Discusses important social, political, economic, and cultural events during the modern period of Chinese history, from the reign of the first Ch'ing emperor to that of the current Chinese Communist leader, Deng Xiaoping. Integrates lectures, discussion, movies, a short library project, and other assignments to foster an interest in Chinese history and culture. Several short papers; midterm and final examinations.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IA
  
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    HS 378 - History of Modern Japan

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines modern Japanese history and the relationship between Japan's past and its role as a major nation today. Illuminates distinctive patterns of Japanese society and their influence on modernization, characteristics of Japanese cultural identity vis-a-vis the West, and key factors in Japan's current economic success. Short papers and exams.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IA
  
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    HS 379 - Latin America and the United States Since Independence

    (3.00 cr.)

    Traces the development of political, economic, and cultural relations between the Latin American nations and the United States, particularly as seen from the south. Examines crises, misunderstandings, and stereotypes from both sides. Considers themes such as cultural exchange, intervention, Pan-Americanism, the Cold War, drug trafficking, and globalism.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IL
  
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    HS 380 - History of South Asia in the Twentieth Century

    (3.00 cr.)

    Focuses principally on India and to a lesser extent her immediate yet important neighbors-Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Burma. Deals with issues like the freedom struggle against the foreign rule of the British, French, and Portuguese; the growth of nationalism and political parties; social emancipation; the presence of stalwarts like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Muhammad Jinnah; the role of religions and religious activity; the Partition of 1947; economic growth; foreign policy; technological progress; and the growing South Asian cultural and literary world.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IA
  
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    HS 381 - Search for the Divine: Hindu, Christian, Muslim, and Buddhist Ways in India

    (3.00 cr.)

    Down the ages, men and women belonging to the Hindu, Christian, Muslim, and Buddhist faiths in India have searched for the Divine in myriad ways. This course presents a picture of this search woven around the lives, prayer, and writings of a significant number of Divine seekers. While showing the uniqueness of this unfolding search in the lives of individuals of different faiths, the course also points to its far reaching influence and attraction for people everywhere.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IA/IC
  
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    HS 382 - Crime and Punishment in Latin America

    (3.00 cr.)

    Crime, punishment, and the laws that define them are examined to provide a window onto the history of class, ethnic, and gender relations in Latin America. Courtrooms-and the documents they generate-are exceedingly important for historians writing about laboring classes, women, indigenous peoples, Africans, and other marginalized groups. Through books, articles, films, and primary sources, students study how laws and crime have shaped people's understandings of politics, morality, and social relationships. Understanding the factors that bring people into contact with the law, as well as their perceptions of it, will elucidate how racism, sexism, and poverty determine people's paths to crime. In turn, deconstructing laws and social norms will elucidate some of the ways governments and elites maintain power. As the relationship between laws, crime, and power is reconceptualized, students may begin to rethink how they study the past.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: FO/GT/IFS/IL
  
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    HS 383 - The Cross and the Sword: Christianity and the Making of Colonial Latin America

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the Catholic Church, a central institution in the colonization and development of Latin America. The Church became integral to colonial Latin America's social, economic, intellectual, and political life. Discusses why missionaries succeeded while others became martyrs. Why were Jesuits simultaneously defenders of Indians yet owners of plantations? Why were Jesuits expelled from Latin America and other religious orders not? Also discusses Protestant and Jewish colonists and examines native religions on their own terms.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IC/IL
  
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    HS 385 - The History of Mexico

    (3.00 cr.)

    A general survey of Mexican history that introduces the cultural, economic, political, and social factors that have shaped Mexico from the pre-Columbian era to the present. Topics include pre-Columbian civilizations and their cultural contributions through architecture and fine arts; the Spanish conquest; colonial New Spain; race, class, and gender in Mexican society; wars of independence and nation building; foreign invasions by the United States and France; the age of Porfirio Diaz; the Revolution of 1910; the modernization of Mexico; and U.S.-Mexico relations.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IL
  
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    HS 387 - Topics in Latin American History

    (3.00 cr.)

    An investigation into a specific cultural, economic, or political aspect of Latin American history. May be country specific (such as Mexico) or cover larger geographic areas.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IL
  
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    HS 388 - Conquest and Colonization in Africa: 1884-1965

    (3.00 cr.)

    In the late nineteenth century, European powers divided Africa among themselves, putting down resistance and establishing colonies that served as sources of raw materials, labor, and markets for European goods. It was not until the nationalist period after World War II that Africans were able to regain their independence. Explores the dynamics of conquest, colonization, and resistance to colonial rule in Africa.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IAF
  
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    HS 389 - Gender and Power in Modern Africa

    (3.00 cr.)

    Analyzes the impact of social, economic, and political change on gender relations in modern Africa. In particular, it explores the differential impact of colonization, wage labor, and cash crop production on women and men, which resulted in new forms of exploitation, as well as new opportunities. People's innovative response to opportunity, their resistance to negative social change, and how their changing identities informed their participation in nationalist and post-independence social movements are also considered.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IAF/IG/IPJ
  
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    HS 390 - Gender and Sexuality in Latin America

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines how the role of gender and sexuality in Latin American societies, cultures, economies, and religions has changed over time. Using sources such as books, articles, videos, images, oral histories, and primary documents, the course investigates the history of gender and sexuality with a particular emphasis on deconstructing such socially constructed binaries as femininity/masculinity, male/female, and homosexuality/heterosexuality. The course also focuses on the ways class, ethnicity, race, age, religion, and other identities affect men's and women's realities. Gender and sexuality provide fresh perspectives on the ways the past is reconstructed.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IG/IL
  
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    HS 391 - History of the Jesuits

    (3.00 cr.)

    From its inception in Europe in 1540, the Society of Jesus made an indelible mark on the history of the church and also on the political, educational, and cultural life of the world. From an initial group of seven members under the leadership of Saint Ignatius of Loyola, the group grew in numbers and influence world wide, reaching an all time high of 36,000 in 1965. This course deals with the work and lives of Jesuits in Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Australia. It explores their spiritual legacy; their contribution to the growth of the faith; and their humanitarian, educational, and cultural appeal. The problems they encountered in the course of their operations are also discussed. Suppressed by the Papacy once for 41 years, persecuted in various parts of the world, and beset in recent years by a downturn in vocations, the Society of Jesus continues to be a vibrant force in church and world history.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IA/IC
  
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    HS 392 - Introduction to Latin American and Latino Studies

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of Latin America and Latino issues in the United States, with history and culture being of primary concern to determine how identities and nations are constructed and how they interact with each other. Students are encouraged to view these diverse realities through the lens of their major discipline. Closed to students who have taken ML 392 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IL
  
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    HS 395 - Violence and Holiness in Twentieth-Century El Salvador

    (3.00 cr.)

    What does holiness look like in the midst of massive suffering and injustice? This course explores the life and ministry of Saint Oscar Romero within the historical context of El Salvador. From comprising part of the Maya Empire, to becoming a Spanish colony, to being a focal point of U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War (especially during the Reagan Administration [1980-1988]), El Salvador has had a rich and tumultuous past. During the country's civil war (1980-1992), Salvadoran government forces assassinated Bishop Romero for his outspoken criticism of unjust governmental policies and human rights abuses.

    By exploring theological, political, economic, social, and cultural change over time in El Salvador, students consider events that shaped the context of Romero's life, his witness to the Christian gospel, and the significance of his legacy for both the Catholic church and the world. Fulfills the second history core requirement and the second theology core requirement. Same course as TH 215 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course and TH 201 .
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall
    Years Typically Offered: Odd Years

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IC/IL/IPJ

  
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    HS 396 - The Modern Middle East through Literature and Film

    (3.00 cr.)

    Provides a nuanced historical understanding of the political, economic, social, and cultural changes that have occurred in the modern Middle East through the lens of literature and film. Students engage in critical analysis of short stories, poems, novellas, novels, and films produced in the Middle East or about the Middle East in order to understand how the lived experiences of women and men have been affected by European colonialism; the rise of nationalism and the creation of the modern nation state; authoritarian regimes; the Palestinian-Israeli conflict; the politics of oil and U.S. hegemony in the region; the rise of Islamist movements; and the 2011 Arab uprisings.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT
  
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    HS 397 - Women and Gender in the Middle East

    (3.00 cr.)

    Designed to provide a nuanced historical understanding of the history of women and gender in the Middle East. In the Western media, Middle Eastern women are routinely portrayed as oppressed, and Islam is frequently cited as the most significant source of such oppression. But precisely how and to what degree are women oppressed in the region? In the first part of the course, a broad chronological survey from pre-Islamic times to present day is conducted, paying special attention to different interpretations of the foundational texts of Islam (the Qur'an and Hadith), Western representations of the "Oriental woman," and the rise of women's movements in the region. The second part of the course is comprised of an in-depth exploration of some of today's most contested issues including Islamic law, honor crimes, female genital cutting, same-sex sexuality, the veil, and women's participation in politics.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-Level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IG
  
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    HS 398 - Global Histories of Disability

    (3.00 cr.)

    According to the World Health Organization, about 15% of the world's population (more than 750 million people) live with some form of disability. This course explores the history of disability in global and comparative perspective. It examines how different societies across time and place have determined who is able and who is disabled, who is normal and who is abnormal. Topics include Deaf history, blindness, madness, intellectual and developmental disabilities, eugenics, war veterans, disability rights movements, and the persecution of people with disabilities during the Holocaust. Students visit online disability museums and archives and work with a wide variety of primary and secondary sources. An optional service-learning experience may be included.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IPJ
  
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    HS 400 - History Methods

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines both the tools historians use and the problems they have to solve. These issues are approached within a thematic and a regional context, combining an investigation of such variant sources as oral histories, personal memoirs, government documents, iconography, and film with the types of history that can be written using them. Despite the course's 400-level designation, it is especially designed and recommended for sophomore history majors for use in their subsequent courses. Students who belatedly declare the history major are urged to take the course as soon as possible since it must be completed before taking a seminar.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 401 - Intensive Independent Study I

    (3.00 cr.)

    Permits a student to do close and vigorous study on a historical topic not available in the regular curriculum. Heavy reading/writing will normally be required, but precise definition of subject and specification of assignments will be determined by consultation between the instructor and student. Written or electronic permission of the instructor and department chair.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 402 - Intensive Independent Study II

    (3.00 cr.)

    Permits further independent work by a student who has completed HS 401 . Written or electronic permission of the instructor and department chair.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course, HS 401 
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 403 - History Honors I

    (3.00 cr.)

    An optional program available to select senior history majors by department invitation in their junior year. It aims to provide intensive research and writing on a precisely defined thesis topic in order to complete a sustained study of high quality. Written or electronic permission of the instructor and department chair. The yearlong thesis project consists of two courses, HS 403 and HS 404 , which run consecutively.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course. 
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 404 - History Honors II

    (3.00 cr.)

    A continuation of HS 403 . Written or electronic permission of the instructor and department chair.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course. 
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 405 - History Internship

    (3.00 cr.)

    The Baltimore area supports many agencies and museums concerned with historical study. As well as learning about the historical documents, collections, and buildings managed by these organizations, history interns have the opportunity to gain work experience in the community. Students work with the instructor to choose and carry out unpaid internship projects supervised by professional staff at the Baltimore City Life Museums, the Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore's two art museums, the Office of Urban Archaeology, The Commission on Historic and Architectural Preservation, and other local historical agencies. Written or electronic permission of the instructor. Counts once toward the history major; may be repeated for free elective credit.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course. 
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring/Summer
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 410 - Special Topics: The Crusades

    (3.00 cr.)

    Students examine the Crusades, beginning with the efforts by western Europeans to assist the Byzantine Empire to defend its borders against Middle Eastern Islamic enemies. Those efforts set the stage for centuries of warfare between European crusader forces and Islamic forces for control of the Holy Lands. Students study the early history of the Crusades, from both the Christian and non-Christian view, as well as their effect on the early modern and modern history of the world. A significant research paper is required.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IM
  
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    HS 411 - Special Topics: The Second World War

    (3.00 cr.)

    Students examine the history of the Second World War and particularly military strategy and combat in both European and Asian theatres of war. Students confront historical controversies over appeasement, the Holocaust, and the decision to drop the atom bomb. The course also deals with memorials to the war and its combatants. A significant research paper is required.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 412 - Gods and Monsters: An Iconography of Nineteenth-Century Europe

    (3.00 cr.)

    Studies individuals whose careers mirrored and shaped the intellectual terrain of nineteenth-century Europe. Among these are "Chinese Gordon," hero of the Battle of Khartoum; Florence Nightingale, "savior" of the Crimean War; and Oscar Wilde, poster boy for the decadent art movement. These individuals are analyzed in the context of the most powerful critiques of nineteenth-century assumptions, those of Marx, Darwin, Freud, and Nietzsche.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 413 - Medieval Military History

    (3.00 cr.)

    The Middle Ages was a bellicose era. From the Germanic invasions to the Hundred Years War, from the Vikings to the Crusaders, the Middle Ages seems to have been made up of one major conflict followed by another. Traces the history of warfare throughout the Middle Ages as well as covering medieval strategy, tactics, combatants, technology, diplomacy, the role of religion, and the effects on nonmilitary society.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IM
  
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    HS 414 - Women in Europe

    (3.00 cr.)

    Introduces the many roles of women in European society from the 1600s to the 1950s. Uses women's autobiographies, novels, and letters as well as recent theoretical scholarship. Defines how women, of both elite and popular cultures, perceived themselves and were perceived by men.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IG
  
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    HS 415 - Scientists and Psychics: Victorian Science and the Boundaries of Belief

    (3.00 cr.)

    This examination of late nineteenth century Victorian science explores both the assumptions upon which physics and psychics based their research, as well as the cultural milieu which provided such a fertile field for both sets of investigations-often performed by the same individuals. The discoveries of Sir William Crookes, Sir Oliver Lodge, and Dr. Anna Kingsford serve as the focus for a detailed study of the mutability of "facts" within the context of science as it developed in fin-de-siècle Britain.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 416 - Sex and the City

    (3.00 cr.)

    Introduces students to key themes in both urban history and the history of sexuality by exploring the ways in which the development of modern urban centers in Western Europe and North America shaped and were shaped by the emergence of modern sexuality in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The course traces the ways that urban space provided new opportunities for sex work and the development of sexual identities, while also showcasing the ways that sexual practices helped remake the ways cities are experienced through a intersectional framework that also takes into account race, gender, and class. Topics covered include industrialization and urbanization, public hygiene and urban design, sex work, consumer culture, and the development of gay, lesbian, and transgender subcultures.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IG
  
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    HS 417 - Germans in Africa, Africans in Germany

    (3.00 cr.)

    Explores encounters between Germany and Africa across six German states (Imperial Germany, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, East and West Germany, and reunified Germany). Topics include the establishment and loss of a German colonial empire in Africa, the presence of Africans and Afro-Germans (and later African-Americans) in Germany, and German debates about the relationship between race, gender, citizenship, and national identity.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IAF
  
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    HS 420 - Homer and History

    (3.00 cr.)

    Was there a Trojan War? What is the relation of Homer's epic Iliad to historical events of the Bronze Age Aegean? What was its impact on the Greek world of the Geometric Era (the most likely period for the composition of the Homeric poems), a lively period of expansion, colonization, trade, and the rise of the nation-state of the polis. Investigates Homer's effect both on contemporary Greek national identity and later Greeks' understanding and deliberate construction of their own past. Interdisciplinary approach combining literary texts, archaeology, and secondary historical analysis. Same course as CL 420 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 421 - Caesar and Augustus

    (3.00 cr.)

    They transformed a great republic into a monarchy; killed (literally) millions of people; conquered a huge chunk of the Mediterranean World and Europe; carried out one of the greatest urban renewal projects in history; revived and transformed religion; revised the calendar; inspired Shakespeare, Shaw, and dozens of movies. And yet, the one wound up assassinated by his peers, and the other had so little control over his own family that he felt compelled to exile his jet-set daughter to the Roman equivalent of Siberia. Who were they? And how did the epochal events of their lifetime give birth to such genius monsters? Same course as CL 421 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: II
  
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    HS 423 - Disasters in American History

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines American history through the lens of disasters. Disasters offer a unique perspective from which to examine social, political, and economic structures and institutions. Explores disasters at various points in U.S. history in an effort to understand how these calamities have affected events; how the impact and understanding of disasters have changed over time; and ultimately, to provide a window onto the changing nature of American society over the past 200 years.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IES/IU
  
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    HS 425 - Modern American Social Movements

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines popular movements to alter the political, cultural, or social structure of the United States in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Topics include temperance reform, women's rights, Populism, Progressivism, the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s, 1930s radicalism, anticommunism, the Civil Rights Movement, the New Left, and the Counterculture.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IU
  
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    HS 428 - The Making of the Early Republic: A Study of Race, Place, and Ideology

    (3.00 cr.)

    This course begins with the Constitution and goes to 1830. Using a diverse collection of materials (primary documents and secondary sources), this course emphasizes the relationship between race and place in the early republic years. It also shows how a nationalist ideology was central to the social structuring as well as the political, industrial and economic development and expansion of postrevolutionary American towns and cities.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IAF/IU
  
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    HS 440 - Special Topics in Latin American and Latino Studies

    (3.00 cr.)

    An intensive investigation into a specific aspect of Latin American history, politics, or culture. Topic announced each time the course is offered.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IL
  
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    HS 442 - Health and Illness in Latin America

    (3.00 cr.)

    Traditional medical history has emphasized the march of science and the ideas of the "great doctors" that were assumed to have led to the improvement in medical care and the "conquering" of disease. More recently, historians have looked to other complex explanations to explore the relationship between health care systems and societies. This course looks beyond just medical care to the social, cultural, environmental, and economic factors that have shaped the development of the priorities, institutions, and personnel in the health-care system in the Americas. It examines these relationships through the lenses of gender, race, sexuality, science, and class.

    Prerequisite: One HS100-level course, one HS300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IL
  
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    HS 443 - Apartheid and Its Demise in South Africa

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the origins of the South African apartheid system from Dutch settlement in the seventeenth century through British conquest in the nineteenth century, to the electoral victory of the Afrikaner Nationalist Party in 1948. Explores apartheid's demise, beginning with the elite-based African nationalist parties of the 1910s, campaigns of mass civil disobedience of the 1950s, Black Consciousness movement of the 1970s, and mass democratic movements of the 1980s. Issues of race, class, and gender are prominently featured. Readings and research assignments stress a wide range of primary as well as secondary sources.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IAF
  
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    HS 444 - War and Revolution: East Asia, 1937-1954

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the tumultuous years in the four countries of East Asia: China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. Through readings and film, the course looks at World War II, the occupation of Japan, the Chinese communist revolution, the Vietnamese revolution, the Cold War, the Indochina War, and the Korean War.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IA
  
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    HS 446 - Modern Latin American Cities

    (3.00 cr.)

    Since the late 1800s, Latin America has rapidly urbanized and now has three of the world's ten largest cities. Indeed, Latin America's urban problems have largely prefigured current American urban dilemmas. In addition to the general problems of urban history, this course given special attention to the important role foreign migration has and continues to play. Students study the historical experiences of foreign migrants to Latin America and Latin American migrants to the United States: how have those experiences differed; are there still social melting pots; and will Latin American and United States cities in the twenty-first century be more similar than different?

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IL
  
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    HS 455 - Historic Preservation

    (3.00 cr.)

    Historic preservation involves the ecology of our "built environment." It asks what sorts of buildings and neighborhoods contribute to our sense of community and well-being, and how these buildings and neighborhoods might be preserved for this and future generations. Preservationists have assembled an array of economic and legal tools to encourage the profitable restoration or adaptive reuse of America's most valuable buildings and neighborhoods. Contains three main elements: a study of American architectural history and styles, with field experience in "learning to look" at the built environment; consideration of recent trends in the preservation movement in the United States and in Maryland, including a trip to the annual conference of the Maryland Historic Trust; and a field exercise in architectural and community history in Baltimore.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 460 - Seminar: American Progressivism

    (3.00 cr.)

    Focuses on the attempts of Americans to control explosive change in the early twentieth-century urbanization, the impacts of industrialization, and the troubling relationship between big business and political institutions in a democracy. Topics include the background and motivations of progressive reformers; their attempts to assimilate or coerce immigrants; and the effect of the progressive consciousness on matters of race, gender, and social class. Written or electronic permission of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course. 
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IU
  
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    HS 461 - Seminar: The African Diaspora

    (3.00 cr.)

    Focuses on the African background to American history. Premised upon the notion that Africa occupies a more prominent position in the study of the genesis of American culture than is usually acknowledged, the multidisciplinary course examines the structures (for example, the transatlantic slave trade) that ushered Africans to British America from the seventeenth through the early nineteenth centuries. Throughout the course, students are encouraged to sense the Africans' experiences from their point of departure to their arrival and subsequent process of enslavement in the New World. Taking into full account the Africans' role in the Americas, student are asked to reexamine and challenge the negative stereotypes that have historically perpetuated misunderstanding about peoples of African descent. Written or electronic permission of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IAF
  
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    HS 463 - Seminar: Colonial British America

    (3.00 cr.)

    Focuses on the British colonies in mainland North America and the West Indies during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Particular attention is paid to three broad issues: the relationship between the physical environment and process of colonization; cultural interactions and conflicts between Europeans, Africans, and Native Americans and the influence of those relationships on the development of colonial societies; and the social and economic integration of the colonies with one another and with the broader Atlantic world during this period. Written or electronic permission of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course. 
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IU
  
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    HS 464 - Seminar: Social and Political History of Alcohol and Drugs in America

    (3.00 cr.)

    Psychoactive substances, both legal and illegal, have been integral components of economic, cultural, social, and political life in the United States. Focusing on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, topics include the social and class functions of drinking and bar culture; gender and alcohol; the rise of drugs in modern culture; temperance reform; successes and failures of alcohol and narcotics regulation and prohibition; and the contradictory postwar developments of a diseased-based, therapeutic model of drug and alcohol dependency; and the popularity of alcohol and drugs in consumer society and counterculture. Written or electronic permission of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 465 - Seminar: Inside the Civil War

    (3.00 cr.)

    Key topics in the social and political history of the Civil War are explored with the goal of gaining deeper understanding of the human and policy dimensions of the conflict. The experience of ordinary soldiers and civilians is the center of discussion; however, specific issues that challenged Americans during the conflict are also examined. These include guerrilla warfare and relationships between soldiers and civilians in war zones; the war's impact on slavery and race; prison camps and prisoner exchanges; attitudes toward death in American culture during the war; the war's different home fronts; patriotism and resistance; government authority and its limits; gender and family life; and experience and memory. Written or electronic permission of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 466 - Seminar: Revolutionary Lives: Biography and the New Nation

    (3.00 cr.)

    Employs biography as a lens to explore the era of the American Revolution and Early American Republic. Biographies of the famous (e.g., Washington, Hamilton, Franklin, Paine) and not so-famous (e.g. a Boston shoemaker, a Maine midwife, and an enslaved African American in Charleston, SC) are used to examine how individuals shaped, and were shaped by, larger social, political, economic, and cultural shifts that occurred during these tumultuous years. The specific topics/biographies vary by year. Written or electronic permission of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IU
  
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    HS 470 - Seminar: The Hundred Years War

    (3.00 cr.)

    The Hundred Years War did more to disrupt the politics, economy, and society of continental Western Europe, thus bringing an end to the Middle Ages, than did any other event. This course follows the chronology of the war by highlighting its origin; military conflicts; effect on society, economy, ecclesiastic affairs, and politics; and conclusion. It focuses on the major players-France, England, Burgundy, the southern Low Countries-with frequent visits to the conflict's spread into the Holy Roman Empire, Italy, the Iberian Peninsula, and even into the Middle East. Written or electronic permission of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course. 
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IM
  
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    HS 472 - Seminar: Frontiers and Frontier Peoples in the Middle Ages

    (3.00 cr.)

    Medieval Europeans were surrounded by peoples who were not like them. Encounters between the Europeans and those living on the frontiers were frequent. They occurred for different reasons, including warfare, conversion, pilgrimage, exploration, and tourism. This seminar studies the interaction of each group separately. Frontier peoples include Germanic barbarians, Huns, Scots-Irish, Auars/Magyars, Vikings, Andalusian Muslims, Mongols, Cathars, Livonians, Hussites, Tartars, and Ottomans. Written or electronic permission of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course. 
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IM
  
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    HS 473 - Seminar: Ending Anarchy in Seventeenth-Century Europe

    (3.00 cr.)

    European societies were in crisis in the seventeenth century. Religious passions and political rebellions, wars, famine, and intellectual revolution threatened social order. The resolution of this turmoil produced the English parliamentary system and the French form of "absolutism"-two very different paths to stability. This seminar examines the courts of Louis XIV and other monarchs to determine how they achieved solutions to the problems of their times. It also studies the creation of cultural policies that encouraged the spread of new ideas. Written or electronic permission of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

  
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    HS 474 - Holocaust Memory in Germany and America

    (3.00 cr.)

    By the early twenty-first century, the Holocaust—the murder of six million European Jews—had come to represent the epitome of evil, an event in history that stands as the reference point for contemporary morality. In 1945, this was not as clear. This course explores how the meaning of the Holocaust as a singular event emerged and changed across generations after 1945 in two very different national contexts: Germany and America. The class examines the role of public history sites such as exhibitions, memorials, and museums, and popular culture such as films and literature, and scholarly debates. Written or electronic permission of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IU
  
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    HS 475 - Seminar: The Persecution of the Christians in the Roman World

    (3.00 cr.)

    An exploration of the causes, nature, and extent of early Christian persecutions until Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire in the fourth century. Topics include the Jewish-Greek-Roman environment of early Christianity; Rome's policies toward foreign cults; Christians' reputation for extreme promiscuity and cultic atrocities; comparison with competing cults; the danger of open profession of the new faith; and Christian acceptance of the ancient world. Given the muddled understanding of the early Christian persecutions, we shall examine and dispel the myths and bring some order to the chaos. Written or electronic permission of the instructor. Same course as CL 324 .

    Prerequisite: One HS 100-level course, one HS 300-level course. 
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall/Spring
    Years Typically Offered: Varies

    Interdisciplinary Studies: IC/II/IM
 

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