2019-2020 Undergraduate Academic Catalogue 
    
    Jan 20, 2022  
2019-2020 Undergraduate Academic Catalogue [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

Course Descriptions


 

Philosophy

  
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    PL 224 - Philosophical Perspectives: Soul and Psyche

    (3.00 cr.)

    An examination of the philosophical foundations of psychology from Plato to Freud.

    Prerequisite: PL 201 .
  
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    PL 228 - Philosophical Perspectives: Philosophy and Genocide

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the challenges that genocide poses for philosophy and what philosophy and philosophers might do to confront and even prevent genocide.

    Prerequisite: PL 201 .
    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IPJ
  
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    PL 230 - Philosophical Perspectives: Humanity and Divinity

    (3.00 cr.)

    A philosophical investigation of the nature and meaning of the religious life.

    Prerequisite: PL 201 .
  
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    PL 232 - Philosophical Perspectives: Gender and Nature

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the history of Western concepts of nature and science with particular attention to how ideas about hierarchy, gender, and violence have affected our relationship to the natural world. Introductory course for the Gender Studies minor.

    Prerequisite: PL 201 .
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IES/IG
  
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    PL 235 - Philosophical Perspectives: Philosophy and Science

    (3.00 cr.)

    A philosophical examination of science. Explores topics such as confirmation of the scientific method, the possibility of scientific progress, and the value of scientific inquiry.

    Prerequisite: PL 201 .
  
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    PL 236 - Philosophical Perspectives: Environmental Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    Explores the place of human beings within the much larger natural world and the fundamental conceptions of nature. Is nature savage, a resource for our use, or a mindless machine? Special topics may include animal consciousness, sustainability, indigenous cultures, global climate change and other ecological crises, and the effects of contemporary technologies.

    Prerequisite: PL 201 .
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IES
  
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    PL 238 - Philosophical Perspectives: Forgiveness and Revenge

    (3.00 cr.)

    How and when is forgiveness possible and when, if ever, might the spectre of revenge legitimately raise its head? This is arguably the core philosophical question that underlies any political or sociological pursuit of peace negotiations or conflict resolution, of retributive justice and the prison system. There are a wide variety of approaches to this question and many potentially illuminative texts; a pathway is chosen that sets theoretical texts against the contemporary world situation. This course thus examines forgiveness and revenge through analysis of philosophical writing, primarily but not exclusively in the Western tradition. Texts might include works of Plato, Aeschylus, Tolstoy, and Nietzsche, as well as the Bhagavad Gita, Koranic verses, and the Biblical gospel of John. Contemporary documents emerging from organizations such as the Truth and Reconciliation Committee in South Africa or Punto Final in Argentina may also be included.

    Prerequisite: PL 201 .
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IJP
  
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    PL 240 - Philosophical Perspectives: The Psychology of War and Peace

    (3.00 cr.)

    Taking its bearings from the psychoanalytic theory of the unconscious, this course explores key features of war and peace. Topics include the frequently excessive character of violence, the blind obedience to authority, the demonization of enemies, the roles of gender and national identity in warfare, and the special psychological challenges of making peace.

    Prerequisite: PL 201 .
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IPJ
  
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    PL 268 - Either/Or: Philosophical and Theological Perspectives on Faith and Humanism Through Existential Literature

    (3.00 cr.)

    Introduces students to the interrelated themes of faith and humanism in "existentialist" fiction and poetry, including authors such as Dostoevsky, Rilke, Hesse, Kierkegaard, and Tolstoy, by drawing on theological and philosophical traditions, texts, and resources. Students engage such questions as: How can and does one live the "authentic" and "good" life in the modern era? How does one resolve the apparent contradictions of a life grounded in faith in God that nonetheless participates in injustice? Can a dialogue between the disciplines of Philosophy and Theology provide resources for addressing these problems? Same course as TH 268 .

    Prerequisite: PL 201 .
  
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    PL 302 - Ethics

    (3.00 cr.)

    Explores, both historically and topically, the basic questions about values and obligation, the social and individual influences on moral judgement, the application of general guidelines to particular situations, and the search for a personal moral life.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 310 - Business Ethics

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of the relevance of ethics to business, with special emphasis on the similarities and differences between business and personal life. Case studies and special readings cover such topics as the social responsibilities of business and the notion of the economic common good.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 311 - Bioethics

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of the moral problems and uncertainties connected with biomedical research. Theoretical questions on the nature of morality and methodological foundations of science lead to a discussion of current topics, such as recombinant DNA, cloning, organ transplants, definitions of death, and death therapy.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IES
  
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    PL 312 - Ethical Issues in Engineering and Computer Science

    (3.00 cr.)

    An ethics course that focuses on social issues, as well as the ethical impact of engineering and information technologies in today's world. Students examine the policy issues that relate to the uses of engineering and information technology in areas such as engineering failures, privacy, computer network security, transborder information flow, and confidentiality.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 314 - Environmental Ethics

    (3.00 cr.)

    An investigation of the relationship between human beings and the natural world, with attention to the ethical dimensions of our life-style and environmental policies. Students explore their obligations to the nonhuman world and to future generations. Fulfills ethics core requirement.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: GT/IES
  
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    PL 315 - Ethics after Auschwitz

    (3.00 cr.)

    When philosopher Theodor Adorno wrote that "to write a poem after Auschwitz is barbaric," it was a profound recognition that the Holocaust changed everything. This course explores ways in which philosophy might be implicated in the Holocaust and other genocides. It then turns to the failures of traditional philosophical ethics that we are forced to confront in the wake of the Holocaust. Finally, the course raises questions about the possibility of hope after Auschwitz.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Spring
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IPJ
  
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    PL 316 - Media Ethics

    (3.00 cr.)

    An introduction to the social and ethical issues relevant to the practice of journalism and other communications professions, as well as the consumption and understanding of the media's role in our lives. Issues for discussion include privacy, plagiarism, fairness and bias, freedom of the press, and serving the public interest. Fulfills ethics core requirement.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 317 - The Experience of Evil

    (3.00 cr.)

    What is the nature of evil? What are its causes? In what forms or guises has it appeared in human history? How is our understanding of evil influenced and informed by concepts like fate, guilt, freedom, responsibility, providence, God, and human nature itself? This course explores such questions by drawing upon a variety of philosophical, religious, and literary sources in an attempt to better understand the all too common experience of evil. Fulfills ethics core requirement.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: FO/IFS
  
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    PL 318 - Communication Ethics

    (3.00 cr.)

    This interdisciplinary course provides a solid grounding in the moral theory of communication ethics applied to journalism and other forms of global media. Key issues involve truth, objectivity, deception, discernment, and the rights and responsibilities of both producers and consumers of the media. Fulfills ethics core requirement.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall
  
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    PL 320 - Logic

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of the basic principles and types of reasoning as they function in such fields as business, politics, law, and the natural and social sciences. Attention to the various ways in which language, argument, and persuasion can be used/misused.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 321 - Cross-Cultural Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    In today's multicultural societies, with increasingly frequent cross-cultural interaction taking place on a global scale, there is greater need than ever for philosophical reflection on how cultures have interacted and should interact. This course examines major theories and debates regarding the ethics and politics of cross-cultural relations and the hermeneutics of cross-cultural dialogue.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IA
  
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    PL 322 - Nature: Mundane and Sacred

    (3.00 cr.)

    Materialism and science have, historically, prospered together since the Enlightenment, but science in itself neither denies nor endorses a materialistic ontology. One danger of modernity is to accept materialism uncritically while at the same time allowing it to coexist with religious faith, unexamined. Students explore the issues that surround investing nature with a spiritual and sacred aspect yet not abandoning a scientific worldview. This course explores how these two outlooks are rooted in the history of Western thought, and how the two worldviews might be seen to form a coherent understanding of the world.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IC/IES
  
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    PL 323 - Survey of Metaphysics

    (3.00 cr.)

    An examination of the 'big questions' of philosophy through an historical survey of thinkers in the Western tradition. Topics include whether time and space have a beginning, the relationship of being to God, the problem of finitude and eternity, death and nothingness, the human search for meaning, and the foundations of truth.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 324 - Philosophy of Service

    (3.00 cr.)

    What does it mean to be of service to another? This course explores the issues of social justice, community, the personal search for meaning, and the recognition of difference and mutuality which all come into play when we seek to serve.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 325 - Philosophy of Asian Thought

    (3.00 cr.)

    An upper-level exploration of Asian philosophical and spiritual traditions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism. One or more may be the focus of a given course.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IA
  
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    PL 326 - Philosophy of Religion

    (3.00 cr.)

    An examination of phenomenological descriptions of religion, and a discussion of the possibility of metaphysical statements about God. Topics include contemporary problems of God-talk, secularization, the relationship between philosophy and theology.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 327 - Philosophy of Language

    (3.00 cr.)

    What is language? How have different philosophers answered questions about the nature of language and its relation to thought, experience, and reality itself? Theories of language from antiquity to the present are examined. Readings include works from classical sources in the history of philosophy, as well as contemporary writings in both the continental and analytic traditions.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 328 - Philosophy of the Body

    (3.00 cr.)

    Investigates the human body as a philosophical theme. Contrasts Descartes' vision of the mechanical body with contemporary alternative views. Discusses how bodily experience is shaped by culture, for example, in the context of medicine, sports, labor, punishment, and sexuality.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 329 - Philosophical Foundations of Catholic Social Thought

    (3.00 cr.)

    A survey of the philosophical foundations and development of Catholic social thought. The survey begins with a study of ancient and medieval sources which is followed by an analysis of important nineteenth- and twentieth-century Catholic statements on questions of economics, politics, society, and culture in conjunction with significant traditions of the period-Catholic and non-Catholic-such as Marxism, phenomenology, existentialism, neoscholasticism, and contemporary views of the nature of person and community.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IC
  
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    PL 330 - Social and Political Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    An historical and topical inquiry into the foundations and purposes of society and the state. Contemporary problems regarding the relationship of capitalism and socialism as sociopolitical models are discussed.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 332 - Security Ethics

    (3.00 cr.)

    It is estimated that about twenty percent of the world economy is generated by criminal enterprise. Increasingly, legitimate business is competing in markets where mafia, pirates, terrorists, and crime gangs are active participants. Security ethics is an emerging subfield of business ethics which aims to understand these criminal risks (e.g., espionage, kidnapping, extortion, piracy) and calibrate ethical responses to them. On the basis of broad reading, this course suggests that an adaptation of Just War theory is an ethical model.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: FO/IFS
  
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    PL 333 - Philosophy of Law

    (3.00 cr.)

    An examination of some basic systems of law, including legal positivism, common law, and natural law. Places where these systems come into conflict-for example, the tort law of wrongful birth-are a special focus of this course. By way of a central theme, students are introduced to the kinds and scope of laws governing homicide and how these apply domestically and internationally. The course is historical-covering authors such as Bentham, Blackstone, and de Vitoria-as well as topical.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: FO/IFS
  
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    PL 335 - Political Philosophy: Justice and Mass Incarceration

    (3.00 cr.)

    The United States imprisons more people per capita than any other nation in the world. A disproportionate number of those incarcerated are people of color, particularly Black, Latino, and indigenous men. How can mass incarceration in the United States be understood? What are the beliefs and ideologies that underwrite this cultural fact?

    This course is an exercise of "societal exegesis," using philosophical, theological, and sociological texts to examine the system of mass incarceration in the United States. Students unpack the institutional history that has created mass incarceration in the United States today, read selections from philosophical and theological literature written from and about prison, and inquire into the feasibility of intervening upon the systemic injustice and racism woven into the prison-industrial complex by way of an experiential practicum in restorative justice.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: FO/IFS/IPJ

  
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    PL 336 - Comparative Philosophy: East-West Dialogues

    (3.00 cr.)

    Places in dialogue Western philosophical topics or figures with those drawn from Asian traditions. One or more specific themes are chosen as the focus of the course; for example, Eastern and Western conceptions of being and nothingness; human nature; the problem of evil; or mind and body.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IA
  
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    PL 337 - Philosophy and Feminism

    (3.00 cr.)

    Treats analyses of oppression, conceptions of agency and autonomy, and accounts of the relationship between politics and social reality developed from several feminist philosophical perspectives. Taken together, the course texts challenge students to approach issues in moral and political theory in light of an understanding of how power dynamics involving gender function across cultural-historical contexts.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IG
  
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    PL 338 - Psychoanalysis and Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines recent interpretations of psychoanalysis, informed by existential philosophy and new conceptions of the nature of language. These perspectives restore the fertility and sophistication of Freud's thought and present new opportunities/challenges for philosophical questioning.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 340 - Chance, Determinism, and Agency

    (3.00 cr.)

    Many interpretations of quantum mechanics suggest that, at bottom, the universe behaves at random. If true, how do we make sense of the intentional actions of agents or divine providence in a seemingly chaotic world? Alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics suggest that, at bottom, our universe is deterministic. If correct, then how is it possible for agents (either human or divine) to act freely? This course explores such questions surrounding the intersection of agency and physical theory.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 341 - Philosophy of Education

    (3.00 cr.)

    The history and problems of education are approached from a philosophical perspective. What is teaching? What is learning? What is the purpose of education? These are central questions in this course. This historical context (Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau, Dewey) help to illuminate contemporary controversies.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 343 - Philosophy of Human Rights

    (3.00 cr.)

    Addresses basic questions about the nature, content, and philosophical foundations of human rights, with a specific emphasis on the philosophical-historical development of the idea of human rights. Various contemporary human rights problems are explored, including ethnic cleansing and genocide, poverty, and humanitarian intervention.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IPJ
  
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    PL 344 - The Political Unconscious

    (3.00 cr.)

    Seeks to illuminate the unthought assumptions and attitudes that shape contemporary political judgments and perceptions. The result calls into question the practical reality of enlightenment rationality but also offers more general lessons about the nature and function of the mind. Readings from Plato, Marx, Freud, Lakoff, Agambon, and others. Enrollment limited to 15 students.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 345 - Sight and Insight: Topics in Aesthetics and Art History

    (3.00 cr.)

    Studying works of art inevitably brings up philosophical questions about the nature of art and the status of aesthetic judgments. Is art just about emotion and not reason? Is art basically subjective? Is beauty in the eye of the beholder? Conversely, the philosophy of art must grapple with the acute particularity of artworks, and efforts to probe art in the realm of ideas are inescapably freighted by the objects themselves and the history of art. How is form related to meaning? What is modernism? What is the future of art? In short, art history and philosophy of art need each other, and students need both to fully pursue fundamental questions about the role of art in human life. This course brings abstract theorizing together with contextualized case studies, allowing students to develop nuanced perspectives on our modes of thinking about art and our cultural practices of making, exchanging, and experiencing artworks. Same course as AH 345 .

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall
  
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    PL 346 - Philosophy of Peace

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of the nature, aims, and possibility of peace. Students read what philosophers have had to say about peace and war from ancient to contemporary times. Some of the issues examined include just war theory, conscientious objection, nonviolent protest, and the current Iraq war. In general, the course asks the question of whether humans are condemned to eternal war or can hope-as Kant did-for perpetual peace.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IPJ
  
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    PL 348 - Exoteric/Esoteric Distinction in Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the philosophical practice of esotericism, or the habit of secret teaching, in ancient and modern forms. Pertinent themes include noble lying, accommodation, protection from harm and social responsibility, philosophical communication of 'dangerous' truths, and exoteric/esoteric literature. Figures considered include Plato, Aristotle, Maimonides, Galileo, Machiavelli, Bacon, Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, Locke, Toland, and others.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 350 - Faith and Reason

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the perennial tension between reason and faith in the history of philosophy. Can the claims of faith be trusted? What is their value? And, what is the connection between these claims and the claims of scientific reason? Readings from Augustine, Saadia, Anselm, Maimonides, Aquinas, Calvin, Pascal, Kant, and Kierkegaard.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 352 - Philosophy of Freedom

    (3.00 cr.)

    Hegel famously claimed that freedom is both the most important concept, and the most widely misunderstood. This course explores the meaning of freedom in existential, spiritual, social, economic, and political contexts. A wide range of readings from authors such as Frederick Douglass, Kant, Hobbes, Sartre, Merton, Rand, Marx, Lakoff, Coates, and Hegel are studied.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 353 - Philosophy of Experience

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the major Western articulations of holism with emphasis on the experience of unity and the unity of experience, including the Neoplatonic philosophy of Plotinus; the Christian mystical tradition inspired by Pseudo-Dionysius; the early modern philosophies of Spinoza and Leibniz; the philosophical idealism of Hegel and Bradley; and the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 354 - Chinese Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    Students are introduced to some of the major themes and figures of philosophical thought in China. Major attention is given to the classical schools of Chinese philosophy, especially Daoism and Confucianism. Recent works on Chinese philosophy in comparison with Western philosophy may also be examined.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IA
  
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    PL 355 - Philosophy of History

    (3.00 cr.)

    History is a central theme of philosophical inquiry. The study of the philosophy of history raises the question as to whether there is meaning in events over time and space, granting regularity and human freedom. Some key authors are Cicero, Augustine, Vico, Kent, Herder, Hegel, Marx, Dilthey, Ricoeur, and Danto, each of whom contributed to shaping the understanding of history.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IC
  
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    PL 356 - Philosophical Aesthetics

    (3.00 cr.)

    Some have considered philosophical aesthetics one of the most exalted keystones of the philosophical enterprise, representing an examination of the mind and emotions in relation to a sense of beauty. Are truth and knowledge relevant categories when it comes to evaluating a beautiful object? Reflections on the passions within the framework of philosophical discourse. Among the viewpoints typically considered are those of Plato, Aristotle, Kant, Goethe, Hegel, Heidegger, Nietzsche.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 357 - Philosophy and Literature

    (3.00 cr.)

    Literature gives concrete expression to our sense of reality and in its history "re-presents" the status of man and human events as each age presupposes it. Herein resides the intimate relationship which has always existed between literature and philosophy. The history of this relationship explains both the continuity and the discontinuity which is present in Western literature. Focuses on one (or more) special topics, such as tragedy, modernism, aesthetic theories of literature, and existentialism.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 358 - Ancient Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    From the early inquiries of the Milesians to the elaborately structured reflections of Aristotle, the ancient Greek philosophers inaugurated questions about knowledge, virtue, being, and human nature that we continue to ask today. The course focuses on metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical topics in Thales, Pythagoras, Parmenides, Heraclitus, the Atomists, the Sophists, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Same course as CL 358 .

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 359 - The Presocratics

    (3.00 cr.)

    An investigation of the writings of the pre-Socratic philosophers, from Thales to the Sophists. The course looks at their work both in terms of its own intrinsic interest and its influence on later philosophers, chiefly Plato and Aristotle. Same course as CL 359 .

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 360 - Epistemology

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of theories concerning the nature of knowledge. Examination of the distinction between knowledge and belief, the role of justification in establishing truth, propositional versus existential truth. Studies classical, modern, and contemporary views.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 361 - Hegel and His Modern Interpreters

    (3.00 cr.)

    Hegel is famous for his teleological philosophy of world-spirit that interprets history as a progress of an ever more universal, reflexive self-knowledge. The first part of the course focuses on Hegel's Phenomenology. The second on how and why contemporary philosophers like Slavoj Zizek and Alain Badiou rediscover in Hegel a political theorist of antagonism and political violence.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 362 - Hellenistic Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    A survey of the main systematic philosophies practiced in the Hellenistic empire from 323 until 30 B.C.-Skepticism, Cynicism, Epicureanism, and Stoicism.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 363 - Kant's Revolutions

    (3.00 cr.)

    An introduction to the revolutionary contributions made by the great German thinker Immanuel Kant to the fields of metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics. Kant shifts the focus of inquiry from reality in itself to the role of the mind in constructing experience; from moral emotions to rational moral principles; and from the artist's poetic making to judgments of beauty. Same course as CL 363 .

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 364 - Renaissance Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    Discussion of the foundations of modern thought: the turn towards human interest and to language, the reassessment of the classical heritage, and the crisis of Christianity. Renaissance philosophy shows current issues of philosophy in the making.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IC/II
  
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    PL 365 - Japanese Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    Students are introduced to some of the major themes and figures of philosophical thought in Japan. The focus is on traditional thought, such as that of the Zen Buddhist philosopher Dogen, and/or on modern thought, such as that of the Kyoto School.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IA
  
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    PL 366 - Studies in Plato

    (3.00 cr.)

    An inquiry into the epistemological, moral, and metaphysical writings of Plato's middle and later periods, with special reference to the relation of anamnesis, participation and the theory of forms in the middle dialogues to koinonia and the theory of the greatest kinds in the later dialogues. Same course as CL 366 .

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 367 - Plato's Republic

    (3.00 cr.)

    An examination of the teachings contained in one of the most important of the Platonic dialogues. A close study of the dialogue and lectures treats the nature of justice, the quarrel between poetry and philosophy, relationship between philosophy and politics or theology, the character of the philosopher, the purposes of education, the doctrine of "ideas," and the naturality of political life. Same course as CL 367 .

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 368 - Introduction to Aristotle

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of Aristotle as a systematic thinker with an integrated view of the natural world, the goals of human life, and the formal properties of thought. Primary focus on selections from Aristotle's logical works and psychological treatises, together with his Physics, Metaphysics, Ethics, and Politics. Same course as CL 368 .

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 369 - Introduction to Saint Thomas Aquinas

    (3.00 cr.)

    The philosophy of Saint Thomas represents the high point of medieval thought. Course focuses on the three notions that make up the 'dance of creation': the notion of God as a creator whose knowledge does not distance itself from the world; the notion of the world as being created and, as such, perpetually unfinished; and the notion of the human soul as the site from which the world responds to its creator.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IC/IM
  
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    PL 370 - Medieval Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    The Middle Ages is a period which not only excels for its cultural richness-in architecture (e.g., the emergence of the Gothic cathedral), literature (e.g., the vibrant innovations in love poetry), and intellectual life (e.g., the rise of universities)-but also for its profound concern with regard to philosophical issues. The scholastic period (approximately c. 1300-1500) particularly stands out for its vigorous and engaged discussion of profound philosophical questions such as time and eternity, being and thinking, soul and intellect, language and truth. Due to the encounter and fusion of four philosophical traditions-the Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, and Latin philosophies-medieval thought turns out to be a unique cross-cultural enterprise whose impact contributed substantially to the formation of modern Western intellectual culture.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IC/IM
  
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    PL 371 - Introduction to Descartes

    (3.00 cr.)

    An examination of the doctrines of René Descartes through the study of his works, The Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy with some reference to Rules for the Direction of the Mind and Passions of the Soul. Lectures address the centrality of Descartes's teaching to the modern program, mathematical certitude, the relation between reason and passion, philosophic method, metaphysical neutrality, and the project of "mastery and possession of nature."

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 372 - Introduction to Spinoza

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of the foundations of the philosophic teaching of Baruch Spinoza, principally through the reading of his Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. An examination of revelation, miracles, divine and human law, philosophic communication, natural right, obedience, and the theologico-political problem.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 373 - Philosophy/The Enlightenment

    (3.00 cr.)

    Studies the major questions of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century thinkers, such as Descartes, Voltaire, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Hume, Rousseau.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 374 - Philosophical and Theological Metaphysics

    (3.00 cr.)

    Explores the history of and contemporary disputes over metaphysics in philosophy and theology. What is the nature and task of metaphysics?  Why do some philosophers and theologians think metaphysics is essential to doing good philosophy and theology? Why do others disagree?  What do these questions have to do with the rest of life, and God? Same course as TH 361 .

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 375 - Topics in Buddhist Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    Studies the basic teachings that are shared by Buddhist traditions throughout Asia, and focuses on certain key texts, figures, and schools of Buddhist philosophy. This course, also at times, compares Buddhist philosophy with Western philosophies and religions, and students' own ways of thinking and living. An optional service-learning experience may be included. May be repeated twice for degree credit.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Spring
  
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    PL 376 - Introduction to Kant

    (3.00 cr.)

    An introduction to the "critical" philosophy of the German Enlightenment thinker, Immanuel Kant. Selections from his three primary works, Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Practical Reason, and Critique of Judgement are read to show the overarching nature of his critical philosophy. Focuses on key issues such as the meaning of transcendental, critique, and the Copernican Revolution, and how these impact on modern tendencies in science, as well as moral and aesthetic value theory.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 377 - Philosophy of Nature

    (3.00 cr.)

    Examines the changing view of nature from the period of the early modern philosophers of nature, Newton and Bacon, through the Cartesian mechanization of nature adopted and extended by Enlightenment scientists and its rejection by Goethe and Schelling, who defended an organic and holistic view of nature. The basic opposition between the idea of nature as no more than mere natural resources to be exploited for human profit and nature as both alive and the source of all life is shown to be indispensable for understanding contemporary approaches to environmental ethics as well as the looming threat of a global ecological crisis.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 378 - Thinking about Crime Fiction

    (3.00 cr.)

    A team-taught, interdisciplinary course reflecting on a major cultural theme - the detective - closely tied to justice. Not only does the course help develop students' conceptual, writing, and rhetorical skills, but rather uniquely does so by focusing on a cultural object oftentimes exemplifying these very skills. Most fundamentally, the tight link between conceptual rigor and justice offered in the ideal of the detective is pondered. Same course as WR 378 .

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 379 - Thinking through Terrorism

    (3.00 cr.)

    A team-taught, interdisciplinary approach that seeks to examine the causes and effects of contemporary terrorism and to develop critical perspectives concerning on-going efforts to combat it. Special attention is given to the tension between the interests of public security and those of democratic values, civil liberties, and moral principles. Same course as PS 374 .

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 380 - Marx and Marxism

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of the philosophical writings of Marx and of the views on man and society presented by some contemporary Marxist authors.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 381 - German Idealism

    (3.00 cr.)

    German idealism is the name usually given to the explosive series of developments in philosophy during the period immediately after Kant. Seldom in the history of philosophy has so brief a space of time produced so many philosophical innovations, many of which live on today, albeit under other names. Provides an introduction to the seminal role of Kant's thought as it influenced three of the most important thinkers of the time-Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 382 - Existentialism

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of some of the philosophical and literary works of thinkers such as Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Sartre, Marcel, and Camus.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 383 - Philosophies of Self-Perfection

    (3.00 cr.)

    There are compelling reasons to think that how we relate to ourselves, and the efforts we make to improve ourselves, are matters of moral significance. A wide range of topics on this theme are treated, including self-respect, self-deception, self-forgiveness, duties to oneself, and ideals of self-cultivation. Readings alternate between eighteenth- and nineteenth-century authors (e.g., Kant, Nietzsche, Emerson) and contemporary theorists (e.g., Cavell, Dillon, Darwall).

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 384 - Phenomenology

    (3.00 cr.)

    An introduction to phenomenology through a study of its major representatives, notably Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, and Sartre.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 385 - The Thought of Heidegger

    (3.00 cr.)

    Traces the path of Heideggerian philosophy, focusing both on the existential, hermeneutic approach of Being and Time, as well as on the later, more meditative period. Questions will be raised about the implications of Heidegger's thinking for our understanding of the nature and history of philosophy.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 386 - Forgiveness and Revenge

    (3.00 cr.)

    Challenges students to an in-depth study of a central ethical question: What is the appropriate response to injustice? In particular, how should wrongs be redressed? This course looks to ancient and modern texts to illuminate pressing problems facing our culture.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IPJ
  
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    PL 387 - Twentieth-Century Analytic Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    Much of twentieth-century philosophy in the English-speaking world was dominated by analytic philosophy. Among its central tenets was the conviction that philosophical questions are best approached through careful "linguistic analysis." The writings of some of the most important representatives of this school of thought are examined, including Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, G. E. Moore, Ludwig Wittgenstein, A. J. Ayer, J. L. Austin, and John Searle.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 388 - Contemporary Continental Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    A survey of some of the most influential figures in contemporary continental philosophy in an attempt to identify the key ideas that inform and unify their thought. Authors who may be read include Husserl, Sartre, Heidegger, Gadamer, Merleau-Ponty, Saussure, Derrida, Lacan, Foucault, and Levinas.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 389 - Nietzsche

    (3.00 cr.)

    Nietzsche is the first major figure in the history of philosophy to repudiate the tradition of Western thought that began with Plato. The nature of this repudiation and Nietzsche's attempt to inaugurate a new mode of philosophical thinking are examined.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 390 - American Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of the evolution of American thought and language, from the "reflective primitivism" of the Puritans and the religious consciousness of Edwards and the transcendentalists, to the philosophical positions of American pragmatism, idealism, and naturalism.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IU
  
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    PL 391 - Justice in Global Perspective

    (3.00 cr.)

    Explores the foundations and content of justice beyond national borders. Do states-and their members-have duties to people living in other countries? What is the nature of such duties? Specific topics may include global economic injustice, cosmopolitanism, the moral relevance of political borders, environmental injustices, democracy and human rights, development, and war.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IPJ
  
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    PL 392 - The Challenge of Genocide to Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    Contemporary philosophers are now engaged in the multidisciplinary field of critical genocide studies. This course explores in depth the ways in which philosophical analysis might enrich our understanding of genocide and its causes, how philosophy might contribute to genocide prevention, and how philosophy might show paths to reconciliation in the wake of genocidal trauma.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IPJ
  
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    PL 393 - Technology and the Crisis of Nature

    (3.00 cr.)

    Is the human use of technology rooted in a kind of thinking or way of being? Through a reading primarily of Martin Heidegger's work, students look at the dark side of technology and the devastating effects of human technical manipulation of the natural world.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 394 - Process Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    A study of the basic principles of process philosophy through Whitehead's Process and Reality. Topics include actual entities and their formative principles, the phases of feeling, the concrescence of an actual entity, actual entities, nexus and societies, the theory of perception.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 396 - Classics of Asian Philosophy

    (3.00 cr.)

    Focuses on two or more classical texts in the history of Asian Philosophy. Similarities and differences between these texts are explored, along with their relation to Western thought. The course tries to place these texts in their cultural and historical context, and explores their relevance to contemporary society and personal experience.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IA
  
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    PL 397 - Philosophy of Mind

    (3.00 cr.)

    Philosophy of mind is concerned with the very nature of thinking: the functions of the intellect and its metaphysical status; the relation between mind and brain; the differentiation between reason, emotion, sense perception, and will. It has been a constant concern of philosophers since Plato and Aristotle, up until analytic philosophy.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 398 - Philosophy and Film

    (3.00 cr.)

    Our culture has been reshaped by the new technologies of cinema and television. Examines a range of philosophical issues surrounding the audio-visual structure of these media, and their impact upon society. Also uses films, like written texts, as a medium for addressing significant issues in philosophy.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IF
  
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    PL 399 - Anthropology of Slavery

    (3.00 cr.)

    The most frequently used argument against slavery is "slaves are human beings." The course turns this statement into a question: What does it mean to be human if slavery is or was possible? The phenomenon of slavery, therefore, is taken as a touchstone concerning the consistency of a philosophy of humanity.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IAF/IPJ
  
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    PL 401 - Morals and Politics of the Lord of the Rings

    (3.00 cr.)

    A thorough examination of the moral and political philosophy of Tolkien's masterpiece. Students are required to read the trilogy and are expected to be familiar with the film. Primarily, students read philosophical texts covering the themes of friendship, virtue, privilege, liberty, sovereignty, war, justice, rebellion, family, moral failure, commerce and industry, sacrifice, and love.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IC
  
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    PL 403 - Philosophy of Happiness

    (3.00 cr.)

    What is happiness? How can we discover or create it within our lives? What are the factors-personal, social, and existential-that seem to assist or impede the quest for fulfillment? Classical and contemporary philosophical answers to such questions are explored, with some attention given to the findings of psychological research.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 405 - Aristotelian Ethics

    (3.00 cr.)

    An examination of the ethical writings of Aristotle, with an emphasis on the Nicomachean Ethics. It then explores contemporary Aristotelian ethics in its religious (Alasdair MacIntyre) and secular (Martha Nussbaum) variants. Same course as CL 405 .

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 406 - Philosophies of the Other

    (3.00 cr.)

    Recent philosophy confronts a range of Others-the Other that I hate, that I love, that I fight, that I worship, even the Other that I am to myself. This course traces these very different modes of Otherness: social, sexual, political, religious, and metaphysical. Readings from Hegel, Levinas, Freud, de Beauvoir, Sartre, Marx, Lacan, Zizek, and Weil.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 407 - Marriage and Family through the Lens of Catholic Social Thought and Developmental Psychology

    (3.00 cr.)

    An intensive exploration of major milestones of adulthood through the study of scholarship in developmental psychology and Catholic social thought. Topics may include sex and the body, fertility, marriage, parenting, sexual orientation, divorce, marital infidelity, and diverse family structures.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
    Sessions Typically Offered: Fall
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IC
  
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    PL 408 - Contemporary Mysticism and Spirituality

    (3.00 cr.)

    A mystical world-view attentive to the unity of all things, the possibility of release from suffering, and an awakening to a "higher" plane of reality or to the richness of the natural world, have long been themes of ancient philosophies, both Eastern and Western. Such spiritual themes are also central to contemporary authors writing in both popular and explicitly philosophical ways. Students explore a series of such twentieth- and twenty-first-century texts, as well as their own beliefs and experiences.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 409 - Creating the World: Theories of Imagination

    (3.00 cr.)

    Imagination has been variously conceived as a necessary aid to cognition (Aristotle), an "inferior kind of perceiving" (Berkeley), a "blind but indispensable function of the soul" (Kant), and "reason in its most exalted form" (Wordsworth). In this seminar, students investigate the history of the concept of imagination, with particular attention given to the philosophical significance of shifts in its characterization and its role in our contemporary self-understanding. Which kinds of human cognition are imaginative and in exactly what sense? How have our imaginative capacities been theorized in relation to reason and emotion? And, what roles do these capacities play in cognition, poetic practices, and moral agency? The very pursuit of answers to these questions requires intellectual imagination, as no single framework or method provides all of the resources needed to think expansively about the nature of the mind and its relationship to the world.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 410 - Metaphysics and the Meaning of Life

    (3.00 cr.)

    Fundamental queries-metaphysical questions-fascinate human beings: the existence of God, the nature of universals, the riddle of identity, the fact of mortality, the immortality of the soul, the enigma of time. This course examines such "perennial" questions through an historical survey of philosophical thinking and seeks to revive those questions for today.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 411 - Philosophy of Culture

    (3.00 cr.)

    What defines culture? Where do we start in thinking about cultural difference? A wider discussion of the meaning of culture eventually alights on discussion of the 'American dream'-the major paradigm for cultural self-definition in the United States. Is the American cultural binder a dream or an illusion? The solidity, utility, and morality of the American dream is challenged by setting it against competing paradigms. Students should be prepared to encounter a very critical look at American culture through the eyes of some modern and contemporary critics of cultural norms. Possible authors for study include Nietzsche, Marx, Goldman, Gadamer, Adorno, Horkheimer, Chomsky, Baudrillard, Fussell, Zinn, and Berry.

    Prerequisite: PL 201  and one additional PL 200-level course.
  
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    PL 417 - Beginning and End of Life

    (3.00 cr.)

    Concerns two of today's most controversial issues: abortion and euthanasia. How are we to think about killing at the beginning and end of life? The course is unique in bringing together theological and philosophical arguments with psychological theories and empirical findings. What is the mindset of people who want assistance with their suicide or expectant parents facing a crisis pregnancy? What are the feelings and thoughts of the medical staff involved? What has theology and philosophy to say about guilt and suffering, and what are the arguments governing who can be killed, when, and by whom? The course is team-taught by professors from the Departments of Psychology and Philosophy, and students learn how to integrate their knowledge of psychological research methods with the theological and philosophical reasoning of Catholic social thought. Written or electronic permission of the instructor.

    Prerequisite: PL 201 , one additional PL 200-level course, and PY 101 .
    Interdisciplinary Studies: IC
 

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